ZX-calculus

The ZX-calculus is a rigorous graphical language for reasoning about linear maps between qubits, which are represented as ZX-diagrams. A ZX-diagram consists of a set of generators called spiders that represent specific tensors. These are connected together to form a tensor network similar to Penrose graphical notation. Due to the symmetries of the spiders and the properties of the underlying category, topologically deforming a ZX-diagram does not affect the linear map it represents. In addition to the equalities between ZX-diagrams that are generated by topological deformations, the calculus also has a set of graphical rewrite rules for transforming diagrams into one another. The ZX-calculus is universal in the sense that any linear map between qubits can be represented as a diagram, and different sets of graphical rewrite rules are complete for different families of linear maps. ZX-diagrams can be seen as a generalisation of quantum circuit notation.


The ZX-calculus is a rigorous graphical language for reasoning about linear maps between qubits, which are represented as ZX-diagrams. A ZX-diagram consists of a set of generators called spiders that represent specific tensors. These are connected together to form a tensor network similar to Penrose graphical notation. Due to the symmetries of the spiders and the properties of the underlying category, topologically deforming a ZX-diagram does not affect the linear map it represents. In addition to the equalities between ZX-diagrams that are generated by topological deformations, the calculus also has a set of graphical rewrite rules for transforming diagrams into one another. The ZX-calculus is universal in the sense that any linear map between qubits can be represented as a diagram, and different sets of graphical rewrite rules are complete for different families of linear maps. ZX-diagrams can be seen as a generalisation of quantum circuit notation.
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