Sex-chromosome dosage compensation

Dosage compensation is the process by which organisms equalize the expression of genes between members of different biological sexes. Across species, different sexes are often characterized by different types and numbers of sex chromosomes. In order to neutralize the large difference in gene dosage produced by differing numbers of sex chromosomes among the sexes, various evolutionary branches have acquired various methods to equalize gene expression among the sexes. Because sex chromosomes contain different numbers of genes, different species of organisms have developed different mechanisms to cope with this inequality. Replicating the actual gene is impossible; thus organisms instead equalize the expression from each gene. For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information from the other, expressed X chromosome. Thus, human females have the same number of expressed X-linked genes as do human males (XY), both sexes having essentially one X chromosome per cell, from which to transcribe and express genes.


Dosage compensation is the process by which organisms equalize the expression of genes between members of different biological sexes. Across species, different sexes are often characterized by different types and numbers of sex chromosomes. In order to neutralize the large difference in gene dosage produced by differing numbers of sex chromosomes among the sexes, various evolutionary branches have acquired various methods to equalize gene expression among the sexes. Because sex chromosomes contain different numbers of genes, different species of organisms have developed different mechanisms to cope with this inequality. Replicating the actual gene is impossible; thus organisms instead equalize the expression from each gene. For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information from the other, expressed X chromosome. Thus, human females have the same number of expressed X-linked genes as do human males (XY), both sexes having essentially one X chromosome per cell, from which to transcribe and express genes.
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