Production of antibiotics
Production of antibiotics is a naturally occurring event, that thanks to advances in science can now be replicated and improved upon in laboratory settings. Due to the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming, and the efforts of Florey and Chain in 1938, large-scale, pharmaceutical production of antibiotics has been made possible. As with the initial discovery of penicillin, most antibiotics have been discovered as a result of happenstance. Antibiotic production can be grouped into three methods: natural fermentation, semi-synthetic, and synthetic. As more and more bacteria continue to develop resistance to currently produced antibiotics, research and development of new antibiotics continues to be important. In addition to research and development into the production of new antibiotics, repackaging delivery systems is important to improving efficacy of the antibiotics that are currently produced. Improvements to this field have seen the ability to add antibiotics directly into implanted devices, aerosolization of antibiotics for direct delivery, and combination of antibiotics with non antibiotics to improve outcomes. The increase of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has led to an increased urgency for the funding of research and development of antibiotics and a desire for production of new and better acting antibiotics.