Misinformation is false or inaccurate information that is communicated regardless of an intention to deceive. Examples of misinformation are false rumors, insults, and pranks. Disinformation is a species of misinformation that is deliberately deceptive, e. g. malicious hoaxes, spearphishing, and computational propaganda. The principal effect of misinformation is to elicit fear and suspicion among a population. News parody or satire can become misinformation if the unwary judge it to be credible and communicate it as if it were true. The words "misinformation" and "disinformation" have often been associated with the neologism "fake news", which some scholars define as "fabricated information that mimics news media content in form but not in organizational process or intent".