Host-directed therapeutics, also called host targeted therapeutics, act via a host-mediated responses to pathogens rather than acting directly on the pathogen, like traditional antibiotics. They can change the local environment in which the pathogen exists to make it less favorable for the pathogen to live and/or grow. With these therapies, pathogen killing, e.g.bactericidal effects, will likely only occur when it is co-delivered with a traditional agent that acts directly on the pathogen, such as an antibiotic, antifungal, or antiparasitic agent. Several antiviral agents are host-directed therapeutics, and simply slow the virus progression rather than kill the virus. Host-directed therapeutics may limit pathogen proliferation, e.g., have bacteriostatic effects.