In mathematics, the Grunsky matrices, or Grunsky operators, are matrices introduced by Grunsky (1939) in complex analysis and geometric function theory. They correspond to either a single holomorphic function on the unit disk or a pair of holomorphic functions on the unit disk and its complement. The Grunsky inequalities express boundedness properties of these matrices, which in general are contraction operators or in important special cases unitary operators. As Grunsky showed, these inequalities hold if and only if the holomorphic function is univalent. The inequalities are equivalent to the inequalities of Goluzin, discovered in 1947. Roughly speaking, the Grunsky inequalities give information on the coefficients of the logarithm of a univalent function; later generalizations by Milin, starting from the Lebedev–Milin inequality, succeeded in exponentiating the inequalities to obtain inequalities for the coefficients of the univalent function itself. Historically the inequalities were used in proving special cases of the Bieberbach conjecture up to the sixth coefficient; the exponentiated inequalities of Milin were used by de Branges in the final solution. The Grunsky operators and their Fredholm determinants are related to spectral properties of bounded domains in the complex plane. The operators have further applications in conformal mapping, Teichmüller theory and conformal field theory.