Brutalist architecture, or Brutalism, is an architectural style which emerged in the mid-20th century and gained popularity in the late 1950s. It descended from the modernist architectural movement of the late 19th century and of the first half of 20th century, and is characterized by simple, block-like structures that often feature bare building materials. Exposed concrete is favored in construction; however, some examples are primarily made of brick. Although the architectural style began in Europe, Brutalist architecture became common around the world. The style has been most commonly used in the design of institutional buildings, such as libraries, courts, public housing and city halls. The popularity of the movement began to decline in the late 1970s.